Oldfield, Sara (comp.)(1997). Cactus and Succulent Plants - Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cactus and Succulent Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 10 + 212 pp.


Annex 15

pag. 199-202:

Brazilian cacti

Compiled by Nigel P. Taylor.

The new IUCN categories of threat (see Annex 16 for definitions) are given below for the Cactaceae of eastern Brazil and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, geographically defined as in the regional account of South America. The order of taxa is systematic. Endemics are indicated by an asterisk (*). Introduced, naturalised, and most hybrid taxa are omitted.

Taxon

Conservation information

PERESKIOIDEAE

 

Pereskia aculeata

Low Risk.

P. grandifolia

        ssp. grandifolia*

Data Deficient, but perhaps Low Risk, since it has been taken into cultivation (as a hedge plant) in the region where it is native.

        ssp. violacea*

Data Deficient, ibid.

P. bahiensis*

Low Risk; it has been taken into cultivation (as a hedge plant) in the region where it is native.

P. stenantha *

Low Risk; it has been taken into cultivation (as a hedge plant) in the region where it is native.

P. aureiflora *

Vulnerable; this plant is rare except in north-eastern Minas Gerais (Rio Jequitinhonha valley).

OPUNTIOIDEAE

 

Quiabentia zehntneri*

Low Risk and perhaps locally increasing by vegetative propagation when its habitat is disturbed.

Tacinga braunii*

Vulnerable.

T. funalis*

Low Risk at present, but habitat destruction continuing.

Opuntia werneri*

Vulnerable; its habitat at Rui Barbosa (BA) is being destroyed by mining operations.

O. palmadora*

Low Risk.

O. saxatilis

        ssp. saxatilis*

Low risk at present, but found only on limestone and therefore potentially at risk from quarrying activities in the long term.

        ssp. estevesii*

Data Deficient, but probably vulnerable, since it is presently known only from one location and could be affected by quarrying in the future.

O. inamoena*

Low Risk.

O. x quipa*

Low Risk.

O. monacantha

Low Risk.

Brasiliopuntia brasiliensis

Data Deficient; much of its habitat has been destroyed in Brazil, but it does occur in some Parques Nacionais and has a wide distribution in the southern Neotropics.

CACTOIDEAE

 

Pseudoacathocereus brasiliensis*

Vulnerable.

Harrisia adscendens*

Low Risk.

Selenicereus setaceus

Low Risk.

Epiphyllum phyllanthus

Low Risk.

Lepismium cruciforme

Low Risk.

L. houlletianum*

Low Risk.

L. warmirtgianum

Low Risk.

L. lumbricoides

Low Risk.

Rhipsalis pulchra*

Data Deficient; possibly Conservation Dependent, since it is found within various protected areas.

R. puniceodiscus*

Low Risk.

R. hoelleri*

Data Deficient, but to date collected only once.

R. neves-armondii*

Low Risk, but needs to be monitored.

R. dissimilis*

Data deficient; included within at least one protected area in the southern part of its range.

R. trigona *

Low Risk, but needs to be monitored.

R. floccosa

        ssp. floccosa

Low Risk.

        ssp. pulvinigera*

Low Risk.

R. paradoxa

        ssp. septentrionalis*

Data deficient, but potentially endangered in view of continuing habitat destruction.

        ssp. paradoxa*

Low Risk.

R. pacheco-leonis

        ssp. catenulata*

Data deficient, but known from only two localities.

        ssp. pacheco-leonis*

Vulnerable; known only from the region of Cabo Frio (RJ), where considerable development for tourism is taking place.

R. pentaptera*

Extinct in the Wild.

R. sulcata*

Data Deficient, but currently known from only a single collection.

R. russellii*

Low Risk; however, its habitat has contracted markedly especially in southern Bahia, where the most recent collection was made in 1971. Elsewhere, it is found within some reasonably secure protected areas.

R. elliptica*

Low Risk taking its total range into account.

R. pachyptera*

Low Risk.

R. oblonga *

Low Risk taking its total range into account.

R. crispata *

Data Deficient. Apparently wide-ranging but rarely observed and potentially vulnerable despite its range.

R. cereoides*

Vulnerable; known from only two localities, the southern one close to the city of Rio de Janeiro and potentially affected by coastal tourism.

R. densiareolata*

Data Deficient.

R. baccifera

        ssp. baccifera

Low Risk.

        ssp. hileiabaiana*

Vulnerable.

R. lindbergiana*

Not threatened.

R. teres*

Low Risk.

R. grandiflora*

Low Risk, but needs to be monitored.

R mesembryanthemoides*

Vulnerable; situated close to the city of Rio de Janeiro.

R. juengeri*

Data Deficient.

R. cereuscula

Low Risk.

R. pilocarpa*

Vulnerable or Conservation Dependent; found only in virgin forest, very little of which remains (some of it possibly in National Parks or other reserves).

R. burchellii*

Vulnerable; its type locality (one of only five known for the species) is now within the city of São Paulo and has been heavily polluted in recent times.

R. ewaldiana*

Data Deficient.

R. campos portoana*

Low Risk.

R. clavata*

Low Risk or possibly Conservation Dependent, since included in various protected areas.

Hatiora salicornioides*

Low Risk.

H. herminiae*

Vulnerable and probably dependent on the maintenanee of its habitat in the Parque Estadual Campos do Jordão to avoid it becoming endangered or critical.

H. epiphylloides

        ssp. epiphylloides*

Endangered; known only from the type locality, now situated inside a National Park, but not known to have been seen or collected in recent times.

        ssp. bradei*

Vulnerable; known only from a single habitat, only part of which is included inside a protected area.

H. gaertneri*

Data Deficient.

H. rosea*

Data Deficient, but relatively wide-ranging and possibly Low Risk.

Schlumbergera kautskyi*

Data deficient, but potentially vulnerable or endangered.

S. russelliana*

Conservation Dependent?

S. truncata*

Conservation Dependent?

S. orssichiana*

Data Deficient; possibly included within a protected area, but range poorly understood.

S. microsphaerica*

Data deficient; included within sorne protected areas.

S. opuntioides*

Data deficient; included within some protected areas.

Brasilicereus phaeacanthus*

Low Risk.

B. markgrafii*

Vulnerable.

Cereus euchlorus

Low Risk.

C. mirabella*

Vulnerable.

C. albicaulis*

Low Risk, but habitat is declining.

C. fernambucensis

        ssp. fernambucensis*

Low Risk.

        ssp. sericifer*

Low Risk.

C. insularis*

Low Risk.

C. jamacaru

        ssp. jamacaru*

Low Risk.

        ssp. calcirupicola

Low Risk, but habitat is declining in some places due to quarrying of limestone.

C. hildmannianus

Low Risk.

Cipocereus laniflorus*

(sp. nov. ined.)

Data Deficient. Presently known from only a single, small population (< 50 mature individuals), but further field investigations are needed to determine range and abundance.

C. crassisepalus*

Vulnerable, from habitat destruction by charcoal producers.

C. bradei*

Vulnerable; of very limited range and not included within any protected area.

C. minensis

        ssp. minensis*

Low risk.

        ssp. pleurocarpus*

Vulnerable from excessive burning of its habitat, which is partly within the Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó.

C. pusilliflorus*

Critically Endangered on present knowledge and urgently in need of further field studies to determine if its range is more extensive.

Stephanocereus leucostele*

Low Risk at present, but its habitat is continuing to decline and its status needs to be monitored.

S. luetzelburgii*

Low Risk.

Arrojadoa bahiensis*

Vulnerable: known from only four populations (one within the Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina) and at risk from collection of plants and seeds. However, many individuals are protected by the plant's preference for steep slopes and cliffs inaccessible to the collector.

A. dinae

        ssp. dinae*

Vulnerable from habitat destruction by charcoal producers.

        ssp. eriocaulis*

Vulnerable from habitat destruction by charcoal producers. Needs regular monitoring if it is not to become endangered.

A. penicillata*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

A. rhodantha*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

Pilosocereus tuberculatus*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

P. gounellei

        ssp. gounellei*

Low Risk.

        ssp. zehntneri*

Low Risk, but since many populations are found on limestone it may decline due to quarrying activities.

P. catingicola

        ssp. catingicola*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline and its status needs to be monitored.

        ssp. salvadorensis*

Low Risk, ibid.

P. sp. nov. ined.

[Pedra Azul, MG] *

Data Deficient, but possibly Vulnerable, since known populations inhabit forest vegetation which could be cleared for agriculture or charcoal production.

P. arrabidae*

Low Risk.

P. brasiliensis

        ssp. brasiliensis*

Data Deficient, but has apparently declined markedly in the southern part of its range (Rio de Janeiro).

        ssp. ruschianus*

Low Risk.

P. flavipulvinatus*

Data Deficient, but has probably declined in the southern part of its range due to forest clearance (Piauí).

P. pentaedrophorus

        ssp. pentaedrophorus*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

        ssp. robustus*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

P. glaucochrous*

Low Risk, but its habitat continues to decline.

P. floccosus

        ssp. floccosus*

Low Risk, but its habitat on limestone outcrops is at risk from quarrying operations.

        ssp. quadricostatus*

Vulnerable from clearance of its caatinga habitat.

P. albisummus*

Data Deficient, but known from only a single site.

P. flexibilispinus*

Data Deficient, ibid.

P. ulei*

Vulnerable; known only from a very limited area which continues to be developed for tourism (Cabo Frio, RJ).

P. fulvilanatus

        ssp. fulvilanatus*

Vulnerable from habitat disturbance and destruction for charcoal production.

        ssp. rosae*

Data Deficient, but possibly vulnerable from habitat disturbance caused by local industry.

P. pachycladus

        ssp. pachycladus*

Low Risk, but caatinga habitat continues to decline (campo rupestre habitats less threatened).

        ssp. pernambucoensis*

Low Risk, but habitat continues to decline.

P. magnificus*

Low Risk, but range limited.

P. machrisii

Low Risk.

P. aurisetus ssp. aurisetus*

Low Risk.

ssp. aurilanatus*

Vulnerable; known only from a small region without protected areas, the surrounding habitats at risk from charcoal production activities.

P. aureispinus*

Data Deficient. Range may be much greater than presently known.

P. vilaboensis*

Data Deficient; known from only two sites.

P. multicostatus*

Low Risk, but needs to be monitored in view of its restricted distribution.

P. piauhyensis*

Data Deficient.

P. chrysostele*

Data Deficient.

P. diersianus*

Data Deficient, but known from only a single site.

P. densiareolatus*

Low Risk, but habitat liable to decline through limestone quarrying.

Micranthocereus violaciflorus*

Vulnerable and liable to become Endangered if charcoal producers move into the restricted area where it occurs. It needs regular monitoring.

M. albicephalus*

Vulnerable.

M. purpureus*

Low Risk.

M. auriazureus*

Vulnerable, due to its restricted distribution.

M. streckeri*

Data Deficient, but possibly Endangered or Vulnerable, duc to its very restricted distribution.

M. polyanthus*

Vulnerable, due to its restricted distribution.

M. flaviflorus*

Low Risk.

M. dolichospermaticus*

Data Deficient, but probably vulnerable from destructive collection of seeds and from potential quarrying of limestone.

M. estevesii*

Data Deficient, ibid.

Coleocephalocereus buxbaumianus*

Low Risk in the eastern sector of its range, but Endangered to the west, where mining operations have destroyed its habitat.

C. fluminensis

        ssp. decumbens*

Data Deficient, but vulnerable at its type locality from urban expansion.

        ssp. fluminensis*

Low Risk.

C. pluricostatus*

Low Risk, since its habitats are mostly inaccessible, steep slopes.

C. goebelianus*

Low Risk at present, but its habitat continues to be lost.

C. aureus*

Low Risk.

C. purpureus*

Data Deficient, but perhaps vulnerable, since the known habitat is close to a road and may be visited by collectors for plants and seed.

Melocactus oreas

        ssp. oreas*

Low Risk at present, but further modification of its habitats is likely and it requires monitoring.

        ssp. cremnophilus*

Low Risk.

M. ernestii

        ssp. ernestii*

Low Risk.

        ssp. longicarpus*

Low Risk at present, but habitats are being disturbed in certain parts of its range; needs to be monitored.

M. bahiensis

        ssp. bahiensis*

Low Risk.

        ssp. amethystinus*

Low Risk.

M. conoideus*

Critically Endangered. Regrettably, survival of M. conoideus in the wild is severely threatened by extraction of the quartz gravel in which it grows, and through commercial collection for the European horticultural market. Since June 1992 it has been listed on Appendix I of CITES.

M. deinacanthus*

Vulnerable or Endangered, depending on its status at the locality in Município Bom Jesus da Lapa, which has not been visited. In view of its rarity and vulnerability to commercial exploitation it has been placed on Appendix I of CITES since June 1992.

M. levitestatus*

Low Risk at present, but in need of monitoring in view of the potential threat from limestone quarrying.

M azureus

        ssp. azureus*

Endangered by actual or potential habitat destruction at its few known localities.

        ssp. ferreophilus*

Vulnerable from limestone quarrying.

M pachyacanthus

        ssp. pachyacanthus*

Endangered by actual or potential habitat destruction at its few known localities.

        ssp. viridis*

Critically Endangered by habitat destruction at its known localities.

M. salvadorensis*

Low Risk at present, but its habitat continues to disappear.

M. zehntneri*

Low Risk.

M. lanssensianus*

Data Deficient.

M. glaucescens*

Endangered. In view of its rarity and the threats from commercial collection M. glaucescens has been placed on Appendix I of CITES since 1992.

M. concinnus*

Low Risk, but some populations affected by vegetation burning (campos rupestres).

M. paucispinus*

Endangered. In view of its restricted distribution, rarity and desirability to collectors this species has been listed in Appendix I of CITES since 1992.

M. violaceus

        ssp. violaceus*

Vulnerable from habitat modification by the tourist industry.

        ssp. ritteri*

Vulnerable. Known from only two locations, both near to towns.

        ssp. margaritaceus*

Vulnerable from habitat modification by the expanding tourist industry.

Leocereus bahiensis*

Low Risk.

Facheiroa ulei*

Data Deficient.

F. cephaliomelana

        ssp. cephaliomelana*

Data Deficient, but restricted to limestone which may be quarried in future.

        ssp. estevesii*

Vulnerable, with the potential for future limestone quarrying at its only known site.

F. squamosa*

Low Risk.

Espostoopsis dybowskii*

Vulnerable; both populations of limited extent, the northern one affected by clearance of the caatinga in some places.

Arthrocereus melanurus

        ssp. melanurus*

Vulnerable.

        ssp. magnus [ssp. nov. ined.]*

Vulnerable due to its very limited range, but located within a protected area.

        ssp. odorus*

Vulnerable.

A. rondonianus*

Vulnerable.

A. glaziovii*

Vulnerable; many of its former habitats have been eliminated through the mining of iron ore.

Discocactus zehntneri

        ssp. zehntneri*

Vulnerable; part of its former habitat has been submerged beneath the Represa de Sobradinho.

        ssp. boomianus*

Vulnerable; subject to collection, at least one of its habitats being accessible from a main road.

D. bahiensis*

Data Deficient, but part of its range was eliminated by inundation from the Represa de Sobradinho and some of its few sites are accessible by road and may be visited by collectors.

D. heptacanthus

Low Risk, but in need of monitoring, since the cerrado habitats are undergoing much change.

D. placentiformis*

Vulnerable, since most populations are small.

D. pseudoinsignis*

Vulnerable; range restricted.

D. horstii*

Endangered; range very restricted and heavily impacted by collectors in the recent past.

Uebelmannia buiningii*

Critically Endangered. According to Braun & Esteves Pereira this species is on the verge of extinction and is scarcely if at all in cultivation, where it has proved very difficult. Affected by collection of plants and seed.

U. gummifera*

Endangered. Range very limited and habitat affected by charcoal production and collection of plants and seed.

U. pectinifera

        ssp. pectinifera*

Vulnerable, from collection of plants and seed.

        ssp. flavispina*

Vulnerable, from collection of plants and seed.

        ssp. horrida*

Vulnerable; known from only a single locality.

 
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Melocactus margaritaceus